Ashton JM, Balys M, Neering SJ, Hassane DC, Cowley G, Root DE, et al. Gene sets identified with oncogene cooperativity analysis regulate in vivo growth and survival of leukemia stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11(3):359-372.

Balakrishnan A, Bleeker FE, Lamba S, Rodolfo M, Daniotti M, Scarpa A, et al. Novel somatic and germline mutations in cancer candidate genes in glioblastoma, melanoma, and pancreatic carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2007;67(8):3545.

Bleeker FE, Lamba S, Zanon C, Molenaar RJ, Hulsebos TJM, Troost D,, et al. Mutational profiling of kinases in glioblastoma. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:718.

Bonnet D, Dick JE. Human acute myeloid leukemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive hematopoietic cell. Nat Med. 1997;3(7):730-737.

Boyd AW, Bartlett PF, Lackmann M. Therapeutic targeting of EPH receptors and their ligands. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2014;13:39-62. ++

Caivano A, La Rocca F, Favole A, Carturan S, Bracco E, Villani O, et al. Identification of EpHA3 as a new potential molecular target in multiple myeloma. Poster presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology; December 9, 2012; Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Cantemir-Stone CZ, Marzlin N, Zhang J, Wenzke K, Huang K, Marsh CB. Unique gene signature for multi-organ fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:A4934.

Cardarelli PM, Rao-Naik C, Chen S, Huang H, Pham A, Moldovan-Loomis MC, et al. A nonfucosylated human antibody to CD19 with potent B-cell depletive activity for therapy of B-cell malignancies. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:257-265.

Chang HY, Rodriguez, Narboni G, Bodey GP, Luna MA, Freireich EJ. Causes of death in adults with acute leukemia. Medicine (Baltimore). 1976;55(3):259-268.

Charmsaz S, Miller KJ, Day BW, El-Ajeh F., Paleth V., Bebbington CR, Scott AM, Lackmann M, Boyd A. Immunotherapeutic Targeting of EphA3. Blood. 2014;124(21)

Charmsaz S, Boyd AW (2013) Expression and function of the Eph receptor family in leukemia and hematopoietic malignancies: prospects for targeted therapies. J Leuk. 2013;1:107.

Chen CY, Tai CH, Tsay W, Chen PY, Tien H-F. Prediction of fatal intracranial hemorrhage in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Ann Oncol. 2009; 20:1100-1104.

Cilloni D, Catalano R, Chiarenza A, Messa F, Carturan S, Arruga F, et al. EphA3 is abnormally expressed in chronic myeloprolipherative disorders and can be targeted by dasatinib or by monoclonal antibodies. Poster abstract. Presented at: the 12th Congress of European Hematology (EHA); June 9, 2007; Vienna, Austria.

Clifford N, Smith LM, Powell J, Gattenlöhner S, Marx A, O’Connor R. The EphA3 receptor is expressed in a subset of rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and suppresses cell adhesion and migration. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105(5):1250-1259.

Cornacoff JB, Howk G, Pikounis B, Mendenhall V, Martin P. Development of a method for the evaluation of wound tensile strength in cynomolgus macaques. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008;57(1):74-79.

Day BW, Stringer BW, Al-Ejeh F, Ting MJ, Wilson J, Ensbey KS, et al. EphA3 maintains tumorigenicity and is a therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer Cell. 2013;23(2):238-248.

Ding L, Kim M, Kanchi KL, Dees ND, Lu C, et. al. Clonal architectures and driver mutations in metastatic melanomas. PLOS ONE. 2014;9:11.e111153.

Ding L, Getz G, Wheeler DA, Mardis ER, McLellan MD, Cibulskis K, et al. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2008;455(7216):1069 1075.

Edwards JG, Cox G, Andi A, Jones JL, Walker RA, Waller DA, et al. Angiogenesis is an independent prognostic factor in malignant mesothelioma.Br J Cancer. 2001;85(6):863-868.

Faherty N, O’Donovan H, Kavanagh D, Madden S, McKay GJ, Maxwell AP, et al. TGF? and CCN2/CTGF mediate actin related gene expression by differential E2F1/CREB activation. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:525.

Falivelli G, Lisabeth EM, Rubio de la Torre E, Perez-Tenorio G, Tosato G, Salvucci O, et al. Attenuation of Eph receptor kinase activation in cancer cells by coexpressed ephrin ligands. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e81445.

Foss B, Bruserud O. Platelet functions and clinical effects in acute myelogenous leukemia. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99(1):27-37.

Guan M, Liu L, Zhao X, Wu Q, Yu B, Shao Y, et al. Copy number variations of EphA3 are associated with multiple types of hematologic malignancies. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2011;11(1):50 53.

Hafner C, Becker B, Landthaler M and Vogt T. Expression profile of Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in human skin and downregulation of EphA1 in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Modern Pathology. 2006;19:1369-1377.

Hafner C, Schmitz G, Meyer S, Bataille F, Hau P, Langmann T, et al. Differential gene expression of Eph receptors and ephrins in benign human tissues and cancers. Clin Chem. 2004;50(3):490.

Iida S, Misaka H, Inoue M, Shibata M, Nakano R, Yamane-Ohnuki N, et al. Nonfucosylated therapeutic IgG1 antibody can evade the inhibitory effect of serum immunoglobulin G on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity through its high binding to FcgammaRIIIa. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(9):2879-2887.

Janes PW, Slape CI, Farnsworth RH, Atapattu L, Scott AM and Vail ME. EphA3 biology and cancer. Growth Factors. 2014.DOI:10:3109/08977194.2014.982276.

Janes PW, Nievergall E, Lackmann M. Concepts and consequences of Eph receptor clustering. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23(1):43-50.

Jordan CT, Upchurch D, Szilvassy SJ, Guzman ML, Howard DS, Pettigrew AL, et al. The interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain is a unique marker for human acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells. Leukemia. 2000;14(10):1777-1784.

Kandouz M. The Eph/Ephrin family in cancer metastasis: communication at the service of invasion. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2012;31:353-373.

Keane N, Freeman C, Swords R, Giles FJ. EphA3 as a novel therapeutic target in the hematological malignancies. Expert Rev Hematol. 2012;5(3):325-340.

Khodayari N, Mohammed KA, Goldberg EP, Nasreen N. EphrinA1 inhibits malignant mesothelioma tumor growth via let-7 microRNA-mediated repression of the RAS oncogene. Cancer Gene Ther. 2011;18(11):806-816.

Kim H, Lee JH, Choi SJ, Kim WK, Lee JS, Lee KH. Analysis of fatal intracranial hemorrhage in 792 acute leukemia patients. Haematologica. 2004;89(5):622-624.

Klabatsa A, Sheaff MT, Steele JP, Evans MT, Rudd RM, Fennell DA. Expression and prognostic significance of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Lung Cancer. 2006;51(1):53-59.

Lackmann M. Eph on-Eph off: insights into molecular switches that (mis) guide cancer cell positioning. Presented at: International Congress Cancer and Communication; July 2, 2009; Salzburg, Austria.

Le Tourneau C, Lee JJ, Siu LL. Dose escalation methods in phase I cancer clinical trials. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:708 720.

Lisabeth EM, Fernandez C, Pasquale EB. Cancer somatic mutations disrupt functions of the EphA3 receptor tyrosine kinase through multiple mechanisms. Biochemistry. 2012;51(7):1464-1475.

Lisabeth EM1, Falivelli G, Pasquale EB. Eph receptor signaling and ephrins.Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013;5(9).

Lu CY, Yang ZX, Zhou L, Huang ZZ, Zhang HT, Li J, et al. High levels of EphA3 expression are associated with high invasive capacity and poor overall survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2013;30(5):2179-2186.

Makishima H, Cazzolli H, Szpurka H, Dunbar A, Tiu R, Huh J, et al. Mutations of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl family members constitute a novel common pathogenic lesion in myeloid malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(36):6109-6116.

McCormick WF, Rosenfield DB. Massive brain hemorrhage: a review of 144 cases and an examination of their causes. Stroke. 1973;4(6):946-954.

McWhirter JR, Neuteboom ST, Wancewicz EV, Monia BP, Downing JR, Murre C. Oncogenic homeodomain transcription factor E2A-Pbx1 activates a novel WNT gene in pre-B acute lymphoblastoid leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(20):11464 11469.

Miao H, Wang B. EphA receptor signaling—complexity and emerging themes. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23(1):16-25.

Nadeau S, An W, Palermo N, Feng D, Ahmad G, Dong L, et al. Oncogenic signaling by leukemia-associated mutant Cbl proteins. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2012;Suppl 6(1). pii: 7921.

Okazaki A, Shoji-Hosaka E, Nakamura K, Wakitani M, Uchida K, Kakita S, et al. Fucose depletion from human IgG1 oligosaccharide enhances binding enthalpy and association rate between IgG1 and FcgammaRIIIa. J Mol Biol. 2004;336(5):1239-1249.

Orioli D, Klein R. The Eph receptor family: axonal guidance by contact repulsion. Trends Genet. 1997;13(9):354-359.

Ozdemir BC, Hensel J, Secondini C, Wetterwald A, Schwaninger R, Fleischmann A, Raffelsberger W, Pock O, Delorenzi M, Temanni R, Mills RG, van der Pluijm G, Thalmann GN, Cecchini MG. The molecular signature of the stroma response in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic bone metastasis highlights expansion of hematopoietic and prostate epithelial stem cell niches. PLOS ONE. 2014.DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114530.

Palath V, Vekhande R, Lee A, Williams J, Zhang L, List AF, et al. A recombinant human antibody to EphA3 with pro-apoptotic and enhanced ADCC activity shows selective cytotoxicity against myeloid leukemia cells and CD123-positive leukemic stem cells. Paper presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology; September 5, 2009; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Pitulescu ME, Adams RH. Eph/ephrin molecules—a hub for signaling and endocytosis. Genes Dev. 2010;24(22):2480-2492.

Rogers KA, Scinicariello F, Attanasio R. IgG Fc receptor III homologues in nonhuman primate species: genetic characterization and ligand interactions. J Immunol. 2006;177(6):3848-3856.

Rogers LR. Cerebrovascular complications in patients with cancer. Semin Neurol. 2004;24(4):453-460.

Ross JS, Wang K, Elkadi OR, Tarasen A, Foulke L, Sheehan CE, Otto GA, Palmer G, Yelensky R, Lipson D, Chmielecki J, Ali SM, Elvin J, Morosini D, Miller VA, Stephans PJ. Next-generation sequencing reveals frequent consistent genomic alterations in small cell undifferentiated lung cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2014;67:772-776.

Rümke P. The origin of immunoglobulins in semen. Clin Exp Immunol. 1974;17(2):287-297.

Slape, CI. EphA3 is expressed on leukemia stem cells, and Eph/Ephrin signaling features in the remodeling of the leukemia stem cell niche. Blood. 2014;124(21):4783-4783.

Sharfe N, Freywald A, Toro A, Roifman CM. Ephrin-A1 induces c-Cbl phosphorylation and EphA receptor down-regulation in T cells. J Immunol. 2003;170(12):6024-6032.

Smith FM, Vearing C, Lackmann M, Treutlein H, Himanen J, Chen K, et al. Dissecting the EphA3/Ephrin-A5 interactions using a novel functional mutagenesis screen. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(10):9522-9531.

Spitzer TL, Rojas A, Zelenko Z, Aghajanova L, Erikson DW, Barragan F, et al. Perivascular human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells express pathways relevant to self-renewal, lineage specification, and functional phenotype. Biol Reprod. 2012;86(2):58.

Stephen LJ, Fawkes AL, Verhoeve A, Lemke G, Brown A. A critical role for the EphA3 receptor tyrosine kinase in heart development. Dev Biol. 2007;302(1):66 79.

Surawska H, Ma Patrick C, Salgia R. The role of ephrins and Eph receptors in cancer. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 2004;15:419-433.

Tabrizi MA, Tseng CM, Roskos LK. Elimination mechanisms of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Drug Discov Today. 2006;11(1-2):81-88.

To C, Farnsworth RH, Vail ME, Chheang C, Gargett CE, Murone C, Lierena C, Major A, Scott AM, Janes PW, Lackmann M. Hypoxia-controlled EphA3 marks a human endometrium-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell that supports vascular growth. PLOS ONE. 2014;DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112106

Tomasevic N, Luehrsen K, Baer M, Palath V,Martinez D, Williams J, Yi C, Sujatha-Bhaskar S, Lanke R, Leung J, Ching W, Lee A, Bai L, Yarranton G, Bebbington C. A high affinity recombinant antibody to the human EphA3 receptor with enhanced ADCC activity. Growth Factors. 2014:Dec;32(6):223-235.

Tornebohm E, Lockner D, Paul C. A retrospective analysis of bleeding complications in 538 patients with acute leukemia during the years 1972-1991. Eur J Haematol. 1993;50:160-167.

Vail ME, Murone C, Tan A, Hii L, Abebe D, Janes PW, et al. Targeting EphA3 inhibits cancer growth by disrupting the tumor stromal microenvironment. Cancer Res. 2014;74(16):4470-4481.

Valsesia A, Rimoldi D, Martinet D, Ibberson M, Benaglio P, Quadroni M, et al. Network-guided analysis of genes with altered somatic copy number and gene expression reveals pathways commonly perturbed in metastatic melanoma. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18369.

Vearing C, Lee FT, Wimmer-Kleikamp S, Spirkoska V, To C, Stylianou C, et al. Concurrent binding of anti-EphA3 antibody and ephrin-A5 amplifies EphA3 signaling and downstream responses: potential as EphA3-specific tumor-targeting reagents. Cancer Res. 2005;65(15):6745-6754.

Wang W, Wang EQ, Balthasar JP. Monoclonal antibody pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84(5):548-558.

Wenzke KE, Cantemir-Stone C, Zhang J, Marsh CB, Huang K. Identifying common genes and networks in multi-organ fibrosis. AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2012;2012:106-115.

Wicks IP, Wilkinson D, Salvaris, Boyd AW. Molecular cloning of HEK, the gene encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by human lymphoid tumor cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(5):1611-1615.

Wood LD, Calhoun ES, Silliman N, Ptak J, Szabo S, Powell SM, et al. Somatic mutations of GUCY2F, EPHA3, and NTRK3 in human cancers. Hum Mutat. 2006;27(10):1060 1061.

Xi HQ, Wu XS, Wei B, Chen L. Aberrant expression of EphA3 in gastric carcinoma: correlation with tumor angiogenesis and survival. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47(7):785-794.

Xi HQ, Zhao P. Clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of EphA3 and CD133 expression in colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Pathol. 2011;64(6):498-503.

Yamauchi K, Umeda Y. Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage in acute nonlymphoblastic leukaemia: analysis of CT and autopsy findings. J Neurol. 1997;244(2):94-100.

Zhuang G, Song W, Amato K, Hwang Y, Lee K, Boothby M, et al. Effects of cancer-associated EPHA3 mutations on lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(15):1182-1197.


Disclaimer: The information contained in the listed publications concerns biologics that are under pre-clinical and/or clinical investigation and which have not yet been approved for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They are currently limited by Federal law to investigational use, and no representations are made as to their safety or effectiveness for the purposes for which they are being investigated.